Coal Mining

  • (Liaoning) Fushun Coalfield
(Liaoning) Fushun Coalfield

(Liaoning) Fushun Coalfield

  • Description: Fushun Coalfield is the famous coalfield of Tertiary Period in China, which lies in Fushun City of LiaoningProvince. It is 18km long and two to four meters wide and the area is 36 km².It produces gas
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Fushun Coalfield is the famous coalfield of Tertiary Period in China, which lies in Fushun City of LiaoningProvince. It is 18km long and two to four meters wide and the area is 36 km².It produces gas coal and long flame coal and develop very well in these one hundred years. There are not many reserves of coals left.

1. Geological Structure

Fushuncoalfield is a non-symmetric syncline whose axis is from east to west, whose north part is steep (30º-600º of the dip angle) and the south is gentle (15º-300º of the dip angle). The Lower Tertiary constitutes the syncline, and the base is the metamorphic of Sinian and the clastic rocks of the Cretaceous System .The land surface is covered by the Quaternary System which is 0-30m wide. The depth of the deposit of the Lower Tertiary System is not over 600m.The main structure of that system is the normal fault which is crosscut or tilted crossed. And the basalts which are deposited in the system and erupt intermittently have some influence on the lower part of the coal seam of the Tertiary Period.

2. Coal system

Fushun Group of Early Tertiary Period is the only coal bearing stratum of the coalfield. The natures of the rock are volcanic stone of the land facies, clastic rock of the volcano, clastic rock and layer, the stratum of oil-shale and so on. The geologic period is from the Eocene Epoch to the early time of Oligocene, which can be divided into four groups, from low to upper, they are:
Tiger Terrace Formation of the Eocene Epoch: It consists of the basalt with the clastic rocks and coal seams, which is 50-100m thick.
Lizigou Formation of the Eocene Epoch: It is mainly constituted of the tuffs, and it also contains conglomerates, sand stones, shales and coal seams. It is 70-115m thick.
Guchengzi Formation of the Eocene Epoch: It consists of mudstones, coal seams and oil-shale. And the underneath is the giant thick coal seam and the upper is the giant thick stratum of the oil-shale .The whole formation is 137-985m thick.
Gengjiajie Formation of Oligocene: It consists of a set of brown mudstones of river and lake facies and the thin sand stones, which is 111-338m thick.

3. Resources

The coal deposit in Fushun Coalfield is near 1.4Gt and all of that are proved. The deposit at present is 0.7 Gt, and 0.12 Gt of that are covered by the cities and factories and are unminable.The coal types are gas coal in the middle and east of the coalfield and long flame coal in the west of the coalfield. The quality is low ash, low sulpher, high calorific value and high softening point, which is suitable for mixing with cokes and using for dynamics. Some fine and compact lump coals can be carved into technological crystal, called Black Amber. The upper part of the coal system produces thick oil-shales,whose oil bearing rate is 2%-10%,thickness is near 100m.And the refining of the oil has been started.

4. The geological condition for mining

The coal seams in the south of Fushun Coalfield are thick, which have gentle dip angles and are suitable for mining in the open air. Though the middle and north of the coalfield are mined underground, because of the thick seams and the simple structure and hydrologic and geologic condition, the mining condition is also superior .The engineer and geologic nature of the tuffs in the coal system and the mudstone in the roof and floor of the seam is unstable, which brings the problem of side slope to the open-air mining .The shafts in the coalfield are high gas shafts, so the danger of too much gas exists. The natural ignition and the explosion of seams often happen.

5. General situation of development

The local method was used to mine before the Ming Dynasty. Chinese merchants adopting the form of joint operation of Chinaand Russiamined in the south of the coalfield from 1901.In 1905, Japanforcibly occupied the coalfield. The output of Fushun Coalfield increased greatly in the later 43 years. In 1923.the output was 4.88Mt, and it became the No.1 coalmine in Chinaand Eastern Asia. The highest output was 9.24 Mt, in 1937.After the founding of PRC, till 1950s, Fushunwas still the largest coalmine in China. Along with the decrease of the coal resources, partial coalmines were abandoned. And the output of the coals fell .At present, the production capacity of the coals of Fushun Coal Mining Bureau, which is the main coal mining company in the coalfield, is 8.40Mt/a.The three coalmines -Xilutian, Longfeng, and Tiger Terrace are controlled by Fushun Coal Mining Bureau. The production capacity of Xilutian is 3.60Mt/a; the southern vertical shaft of Longfeng Coalmine, 1.80Mt/a, tilted shaft of Tiger Terrace,3.00Mt/a.It is planned that the Xilutian Coalmine will be abandoned in 2010; the southern vertical shaft of Longfeng Coalmine will be abandoned in 2020.In the east and west of the coalfield, there are local coalmines mining in a small scale, and the yearly output is not over 0.01 Mt.The service period is less than twenty years.

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